Author: Rositsa Tashkova, Master of Molecular Biology and Microbiology
There are many reasons for the aging of both the skin and the whole body. We can't particularly influence some of them - these are the genetic reasons. It can be said that they are innate to us. But there is another set of factors that are under our control - lifestyle and environmental factors.
In essence, the molecular mechanisms of both types of skin aging (external and internal) are similar, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial DNA mutations, oxidative stress, genetic mutations, and decreased levels of many hormones.
In the article "10 interesting facts about aging and how to slow it down" we looked at the essence of this process, affecting our whole body and ways to resist it. But here we will focus on practical tips for maintaining youthful skin in particular, which are completely achievable. :)
1. Sweat is not just a source of unpleasant smell
This is particularly relevant in the coming summer months, as hats- which protect ourselves from the sun - often lead to sweating on the forehead and at the base of the hair. Sweat causes skin irritation, which is also complemented by the sticky powder when walking outside.
Therefore, it is necessary to gently wash our face and décolleté twice a day - in the morning and when we get home from a walk outside. This will also reduce the risk of acne or other rashes on the face and décolleté.
2. Less unnecessary facial expressions - less wrinkles
A person can make more than 20 different expressions designed to convey a certain message to others or interlocutors. This is possible because of the muscles that are located under our skin and are attached to it, in a way that enables us to do some mimicry.
People differ in their propensity to make more or less the number of expressions in their daily lives and communication with others. The tendency of our skin to form wrinkles in the folds formed in the process is also different.
Therefore, dermatologists recommend, if possible, to reduce the number of mimics we do every day, especially when they are redundant. This, ofcourse, does not mean standing with a stretched face like mummies all the time - so there are unlikely to be many people left in our lives to admire the youth of our skin.
Such is the curiosity case of Tess Christian [ref. 6]who claims to have not smiled for 40 years (she is currently 50) to prevent wrinkles from appearing. She didn't smile even when she gave birth to her daughter.
3. Burning or itchy cosmetics? Throw it out!
If when applying to the skin of any cosmetics, we feel burning or pinching, this means that our skin is irritated by this product. In the long run, this has an adverseeffect , so it is best to simply part with this cosmetics.
In some cases, medical cosmetics prescribed by a doctor can also slightly money or pinch. In this case, it is necessary to report this to the doctor and get advice from him on whether to stop using it or whether it is normal for the specific case.
4. Sad, but fact - the sun ages the skin
Under the influence of solar radiation, various biomolecules in our cells are affected and damaged - including DNA, dangerous free radicals are released.
All this leads to premature ageing and an increased risk of skin cancer.
Tanning beds also emit UV - that's the principle by which they make the skin darken.
5. What happens to our genes as we age
Studies on changes in gene expression during skin aging have found that some of the mechanismslikely to accelerate aginginclude [ref. 5]:
- impaired lipid metabolism,
- altered insulin and STAT3 signalling,
- increase in expression of apoptotic genes (responsible for programmed cell death) - partly due to the deregulation of the FOXO1 gene,
- reduction of the expression of members of the jun and fos genetic families,
- differential expression of cytoskeletine proteins (e.g. keratin 2A, 6A and 16A), components of the extracellular matrix (e.g. pi3, S100A2, A7, A9, SPRR2B) and proteins involved in cell cycle control (e.g. CDK, GOS2).
Mutations in the genes ELN, ATP6V0A2, ATP7A, FBLN4, FBLN5 and PYCR1 are also due to the rare disease cutislaxa sinilis , also called Cutis laxa or sesnial elastosis. With it, the skin relaxes and hangs in very early childhood (when it is inherited, not an acquired disease), which is due to defects in elastic fibers. It also affects internal organs.
Interesting is the case of The Englishwoman Zara Hartshorn, who suffers from the disease and inherited it from her mother (both women are with Cutis laxa). At the age of 12, people buract the child with a woman in her 40s. At the age of 20, Zaraunderwent a facelift to become more youthful, corresponding to her age. Unfortunately 4 years after the procedure, its effects begin to visibly lose .
6. Sugar is the enemy of beautiful skin
Some research has shown that the consumption of fast carbohydrates, confectionery and highly processed foods (so-called junk food) leads to premature ageing of the skin.
Of particular importance for the skin are vitamins E and C.More about foodsthat contributeto healthier and beautiful skin,you can read at theend of our article "8+1 steps in the choice of quality cosmetics".
7. Sport also affects the face
Research has shown that daily exercise improves the functions of the immune system and bloodcirculation , which in turn can also affect the more youthful appearance ofthe skin.
It was found [ref. 1]that aerobic exercise andhigh-intensity interval training (HIIT) increase the activity of the enzyme telomerase, which leads to an extension of telomeres at the ends of chromosomes, and this is associated with better health and youth. Let's not forget that the health inside is evident from the outside. :)
8. Rough rubbing of the skin does not make it cleaner
In an effort to "clean" as bestwe can, some of us often use hot water and erase all layers of our skin until it starts to creak.
Such behavior not only disrupts the natural microflora (microbiome) of our skin, but removes its protection, dries it excessively, makes it vulnerable to external factors and ill-willed microbes, and ages it.
Therefore, it is advisable that if you take a full-body showerevery day, this should be done with lukewarm water,with minimal or no amount of soap (except on the most polluted areas) and without aggressive friction. [ref. 2]
9. Keep your skin well hydrated
The skin is hydrated in two complementary ways – by drinking enough water during the day and using moisturizing productssuch as lotions and creams.
Especially important is hydration inwinter , when the air is drier (contrary to expectations) and the exposed parts (hands and face) can be dehydrated to such an extent that the skin cracks and small painful and itchywoundsappear .
Most moisturizing creams are glycerin-based. Better effect, especially with very dry skin,has medical cosmetics, which is a little more expensive, but the investment is worth it.
10. How to use anti-aging cosmetics correctly
Doctors at the American Academy of Dermatology advise [ref. 3] to start with only one anti-ageing cosmetic product, since the use of several at the same time can inflame the skin and exacerbate its imperfections.
These cosmetic products are specific and require careful follow of the instructions, so as notto get the opposite effect - clogged pores, dry skin and others.
Moreover, they need more timebefore the effect manifests itself - between 6 weeks and3 months. Therefore, we can not expect that thewrinkles will be smoothed immediately - such a rapid effect can be observed only with moisturizing cream, but it is very short-lived.
We need to continue to use the product when we see results, because if we stop, the effect will disappear.
11. DIY - but not with a laser purchased online
The internet offers a wide variety of products that promise to make us younger, including lasers for home use. Just as itsounds, this can be verydangerous. Often such products are mints and put our health at risk!
Each thing has its price - indeed, the services of a professional require more financial means, but the low monetary value of counterfeit products and devices is offset by a much higher price - that of our own health.
12. Herbs and natural anti-aging products for the skin
Herbal cosmetics play a leading role in preventing the aging of the skin and its recovery. The ingredients in herbal cosmetics affect the biological functions of the skinand also provide the necessary nourishment.
It is estimated that more than 50% of all medicines in the world are natural products and their derivatives, andplant-based cosmetics are promising . anti-ageing skincare products are focused on developing new plant extracts and ingredients based on their traditional medicinal uses. [ref. 4]
- Turmeric (Curcuma longa) - the main active substance in turmeric, which gives it appropriate properties for the fight againstaging, is curcumin.
- Ginseng (Panax sp.) - the most significant ingredient in it is ginsenoside, which is responsible for the properties of ginseng against aging.
- Honey - the antioxidant properties of honey are due to phenolic compounds (benzoic and cinnamon acid) and flavonoidspresent in it, which helps to prevent the appearance of wrinkles on our skin.
- Aloe vera -aloe vera - aloe leavesare usually used in moisturizing creams and anti-wrinkles. The ingredientsof aloevera, such as aloe A and B,have shown the property to suppress the activity of the enzyme collagenase,which causes degradationof collagen fibers and therefore contributes to the formation of wrinkles.
- Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) - the anti-aging activity oflicorice is due to the presence of phenylflavonoids (dehydrogliasperin C, dehydrogliasperin D and isangustone A), which have antioxidant action and help prevent the appearance of wrinkles.
- Amla (Emblica officinalis) - as a rich source of vitamin C , this plant is considered important for slowing down the aging process.
- Arduna - represents dried bark from the stems of the plant Terminalia arjuna. Aging of the skin occurs due to a decrease in collagen production. Collagen synthesis and barrierfunction of the epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin) are improved under the influence of pentacyclic triterpenoids, In addition, the plant helps moisturize the skin and reduces flabby. It strengthens the protective function of theskin and causes the production of sebum (natural fat on the skin) to reduce the signs of dry skin and protect the skin from external influences.
- Indian nard - also called Jatamansi or dried roots of Nardostachys jatamansi. It triggers fibroblast cells to enhance the synthesis of collagen and elastin fibers, due to which the elasticity of the skin increases and the formation of wrinkles decreases.
13. If you want to be beautiful, forget about alcohol and cigarettes
Alcohol has a dehydrating (dehydrating) effect on the whole organism- includingon the skin - that ages it prematurely. Cigarettes, on the other hand, lead to yellowing or yellowing of the skin, as well as to severe premature wrinkles.
As with the intake of any poison, daily or excessive consumption of alcohol and smoking cigarettes lead to a deterioration in overall health, which inevitably affects our appearance.
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